Date: 11th February, 2016
By Terrence McCoy
The Sydney Morning Herald – Environment
Lourens Boot is a man of the sea. He wind surfs. His houseboat consistently ranks as one of the best Airbnb rentals in the world. He spent years working offshore exploration for Shell. But in spring of 2014, the Dutchman wanted something new. Why toil in the maintenance of the old order? So he quit Shell, attended Burning Man, and dropped by an offshore energy summit in Amsterdam.
Something called the Ocean Cleanup caught his attention. Boot had first learned about the project — which aims to cleanse the ocean of trillions of pieces of plastic — on a viral Tedtalk. The video had featured a moppy-haired kid who looked like a boy band understudy. And he had a big idea.
Until that point, in 2012, the leading proposal to clean up the ocean’s trash was dispatching big ships to troll for bits of plastic — and it would take thousands of years. So the teen, Boyan Slat, said he’d come up with a low-cost solution that could do it in a matter of years. He proposed erecting a large and angled barrier and mooring it to the ocean floor in the areas of densest garbage accumulation. Then the ocean’s currents would take it from there, passively pushing the plastic into a collection zone, cleansing the zone in five years.
“The oceanic currents moving around is not an obstacle,” Slat said. “It’s a solution. Why move through the oceans if the oceans can move through you? … Let the rotating currents do their work.”
The idea was so simple, so clear, so seemingly important that the video took off, snaring 2.4 million views. “WHY ARE WE NOT FUNDING THIS?” one viewer commented. But Boot remembers feeling dubious. Funding wasn’t Slat’s only problem. Boot had spent years in the ocean. Ideas that sing on paper might not last the first storm or tidal wave. Mooring something so large and so delicate at ocean depths sinking to 4000 metres wouldn’t be easy, Boot had thought.
This June, Ocean Cleanup’s prototype will settle into waters much closer to land, where two outside experts said it would have a much higher chance of success, off the coast of the Netherlands. The trial run, which oceanographers are closely monitoring, is led by a 21-year-old who has amassed millions in funding, collected thousands of supporters and employs dozens of staffers. Advocates call Slat a visionary. Critics describe him as naive — perhaps dangerously so. What’s not in dispute: The project’s ambition and scope. “It may be the first ocean cleanup in history,” said Nicholas Mallos, an Ocean Conservancy official.
That challenge is what attracted Boot that day in Amsterdam. “This is a really big idea,” he thought, standing before the Ocean Cleanup display. Boot said he wanted in and, days later, arrived at the project’s offices. Boot, now the Ocean Cleanup’s head of engineering, noticed a youthful man. Hair long and dishevelled, he was disdainful of small talk and “a bit distant.” This was Boyan Slat. And he said he wanted to change the world…
…’How the invention works’
Around the time Slat published the feasibility study, which weighed in at 530 pages and was authored by 70 engineers and scientists, he took a trip to Washington. He walked through the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, stopping before the 1903 Wright Flyer, which the Wright brothers used to soar into the clouds and herald the aerial age. Standing there, Slat said he was struck by a realisation.
“We are testing not to prove ourselves right, but to learn what doesn’t work,” Slat said. “The reason why the Wright brothers were successful wasn’t because they had the most resources, but because they understood how invention works. You have to iterate quickly, and you should be prepared to fail. Because things often don’t go as planned.”
Following years of study, and seven expeditions into the gyres, the project has started to solidify. Drawing on technology found in offshore rigs that have moored to depths of 2500 metres, the team concluded that “the tools and methods that are available to the offshore engineering world can readily be applied for the realisation of this project.” It also said that most of the plankton would pass underneath the barrier unharmed. Even in the worst case scenario that the plankton would be harmed, the feasibility study found that it would take “less than seven seconds to reproduce” whatever had been lost.
Expectations have also lowered slightly. The study — which answered many of the project’s critics, but stirred fresh ones — found that a barrier that’s 100 kilometres long would clean up 42 per cent of all of the plastic in the North Pacific gyre in 10 years.
“One of the things I’m happy to see about the work is that he is continually refining the concept,” said Nancy Wallace, director of the marine debris program at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “It’s a proven concept on smaller levels,” she added. “The concept of trying to bin trash in waterways before it gets into the ocean is a proven concept.”
The project’s prototype, funded with millions raised through crowdfunding, will launch in June when the team unfurls a 100-metre barrier off the coast of the Netherlands. The first large trial is set for early next year, when the team will establish a two-kilometre barrier off the coast of Japan’s Tsushima Island. “Focusing on near-shore environments and focusing on trying to stop the plastic from entering the ocean in the first place” is a good place to begin, said Mallos, the Ocean Conservancy official.
By 2020, Slat says he hopes they will have collected enough information — and yes, failures — to move much deeper into the ocean, beginning the cleanup in earnest with a 100-kilometre barrier between Hawaii and California, in the heart of the North Pacific gyre.
So forgive Slat, whose project now bills itself as “largest cleanup in history,” if he doesn’t have time to talk or discuss his past in depth.
“I really hate looking back,” he said. “I think it’s useless. The only way is forward. When I look back one year ago, we were a handful of people and volunteers on a university campus. And now I’m walking into a meeting room, and am looking through the glass at 35 people we have on staff. I always hoped it would be successful, but never realised it would have become this professional or this big.”
And now, finally, he said, it’s time to see if it works.